Thus, rules of law lead to impersonality in interpersonal relations. Nepotism and favoritism are not preferred. Life long employment and adequate protection of individuals against arbitrary dismissal is guaranteed.

Here managers are professional officials rather than owners units they manage. They work for a fixed salaries and pursue their career within the organization. Unit 1: Nature of Management Concept and meaning of Characteristics of Management Management as science, art Management and administration Functions of Management Levels of Management. Unit 2: Principles of Management Meaning of principle of Importance of principles of Principles of scientific management Advantages and Limitations of Nature and Characteristics of Meaning and Principle of Barriers to effective delegation Unit 5: Decision-Making Meaning and Importance of Procedures of effecting life Meaning of fire insurance Procedures of affecting fire Types of fire insurance Marine Insurance Meaning Risk covered under marine Types of marine insurance Go back to subject.

Max Weber a German sociologist propounded the theory called principle of bureaucracy — a theory related to authority structure and relations in the 19 th century.

According to him, bureaucracy is the formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. He suggested an ideal model for management as bureaucratic approach.

He, in the book the theory of social and economic organizations, explained the basic principles of bureaucracy. He gave emphasis on division of labor, hierarchy, detailed rules and impersonal relations. Have a Question Ask us in our Discussion Forum. People Also Read. Add Tyrocity to your Homescreen!Turning a spoils system bureaucracy into a merit-based civil service, while desirable, comes with a number of different consequences.

The patronage system tied the livelihoods of civil service workers to their party loyalty and discipline.

Budget Maximization Model

Severing these ties, as has occurred in the United States over the last century and a half, has transformed the way bureaucracies operate. Without the patronage network, bureaucracies form their own motivations. These motivations, sociologists have discovered, are designed to benefit and perpetuate the bureaucracies themselves.

Bureaucracies are complex institutions designed to accomplish specific tasks. This complexity, and the fact that they are organizations composed of human beings, can make it challenging for us to understand how bureaucracies work. Sociologists, however, have developed a number of models for understanding the process. Each model highlights specific traits that help explain the organizational behavior of governing bodies and associated functions.

The classic model of bureaucracy is typically called the ideal Weberian modeland it was developed by Max Weber, an early German sociologist. Weber argued that the increasing complexity of life would simultaneously increase the demands of citizens for government services. Therefore, the ideal type of bureaucracy, the Weberian model, was one in which agencies are apolitical, hierarchically organized, and governed by formal procedures. Furthermore, specialized bureaucrats would be better able to solve problems through logical reasoning.

Such efforts would eliminate entrenched patronage, stop problematic decision-making by those in charge, provide a system for managing and performing repetitive tasks that required little or no discretion, impose order and efficiency, create a clear understanding of the service provided, reduce arbitrariness, ensure accountability, and limit discretion. For Weber, as his ideal type suggests, the bureaucracy was not only necessary but also a positive human development.

Later sociologists have not always looked so favorably upon bureaucracies, and they have developed alternate models to explain how and why bureaucracies function. One such model is called the acquisitive model of bureaucracy. The acquisitive model proposes that bureaucracies are naturally competitive and power-hungry. This means bureaucrats, especially at the highest levels, recognize that limited resources are available to feed bureaucracies, so they will work to enhance the status of their own bureaucracy to the detriment of others.

This effort can sometimes take the form of merely emphasizing to Congress the value of their bureaucratic task, but it also means the bureaucracy will attempt to maximize its budget by depleting all its allotted resources each year. In this way, the bureaucracy will eventually grow far beyond what is necessary and create bureaucratic waste that would otherwise be spent more efficiently among the other bureaucracies.

Other theorists have come to the conclusion that the extent to which bureaucracies compete for scarce resources is not what provides the greatest insight into how a bureaucracy functions. Rather, it is the absence of competition. The model that emerged from this observation is the monopolistic model. Proponents of the monopolistic model recognize the similarities between a bureaucracy like the Internal Revenue Service IRS and a private monopoly like a regional power company or internet service provider that has no competitors.

Such organizations are frequently criticized for waste, poor service, and a low level of client responsiveness. Consider, for example, the Bureau of Consular Affairs BCAthe federal bureaucracy charged with issuing passports to citizens.

There is no other organization from which a U. Thus there is no reason for the BCA to become more efficient or more responsive or to issue passports any faster. There are rare bureaucratic exceptions that typically compete for presidential favor, most notably organizations such as the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and the intelligence agencies in the Department of Defense.

Apart from these, bureaucracies have little reason to become more efficient or responsive, nor are they often penalized for chronic inefficiency or ineffectiveness. Therefore, there is little reason for them to adopt cost-saving or performance measurement systems. While some economists argue that the problems of government could be easily solved if certain functions are privatized to reduce this prevailing incompetence, bureaucrats are not as easily swayed.

A bureaucracy is a particular government unit established to accomplish a specific set of goals and objectives as authorized by a legislative body.

In the United States, the federal bureaucracy enjoys a great degree of autonomy compared to those of other countries.Bureaucrats are simply normal, everyday Americans that come from all walks of life: male and female, every ethnic group, every race, and every age group. The idea that bureaucrats are nameless, faceless, soulless individuals is simply untrue. They may very well be your friends, your neighbors, or even your relatives — certainly people you know and people very much like you.

Click here to download an accessible PDF transcript. Moving from a spoils system bureaucracy to a merit-based civil service — as the United States has done since — while desirable, comes with a number of different consequences. The patronage system tied the livelihoods of civil service workers to their party loyalty and discipline. Severing these ties, as has occurred in the United States over the last century and a half, has transformed the way bureaucracies operate. These motivations, sociologists have discovered, are designed to benefit and perpetuate the bureaucracies themselves.

Bureaucracies are complex institutions designed to accomplish specific tasks. This complexity, and the fact that organizations are composed of human beings, can make it challenging for us to understand how bureaucracies work.

Sociologists, however, have developed a number of models for understanding the process. Each model highlights specific traits that help explain the organizational behavior of governing bodies and associated functions. The classic model of bureaucracy is typically called the ideal Weberian modeland it was developed by Max Weber, an early German sociologist. Weber argued that the increasing complexity of life would simultaneously increase the demands of citizens for government services.

Therefore, the ideal type of bureaucracy, the Weberian model, is one in which agencies are apolitical, hierarchically organized, and governed by formal procedures.

Furthermore, specialized bureaucrats are deemed better able to solve problems through logical reasoning. Such efforts eliminate entrenched patronage, stop problematic decision-making by those in charge, provide a system for managing and performing repetitive tasks that require little or no discretion, impose order and efficiency, create a clear understanding of the service provided, reduce arbitrariness, ensure accountability, and limit discretion.

For Weber, as his ideal type suggests, the bureaucracy was not only necessary but also a positive human development. Later sociologists have not always looked so favorably upon bureaucracies, and they have developed alternate models to explain how and why bureaucracies function. One such model is called the acquisitive model of bureaucracy. The acquisitive model proposes that bureaucracies are naturally competitive and power-hungry. This means bureaucrats, especially at the highest levels, recognize that limited resources are available to feed bureaucracies, so they will work to enhance the status of their own bureaucracy to the detriment of others.

This effort can sometimes take the form of merely emphasizing to Congress the value of their bureaucratic task, but it also means the bureaucracy will attempt to maximize its budget by depleting all its allotted resources each year.Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this WorldCat. Thirteen scholars reexamine the provocative models of bureaucratic behavior developed by William A. Niskanen in his seminal book, Bureaucracy and Representative Government.

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Budget-maximizing model

Internet Archive. Open Library. Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours. Finding libraries that hold this item This work is not limited to academia but will appeal to civil servants and pragmatists alike. You may have already requested this item. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy Cookie Notice Terms and Conditions WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online.

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The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. The E-mail Address es field is required. Please enter recipient e-mail address es. The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format.The budget-maximizing model is a stream of public choice theory and rational choice analysis in public administration inaugurated by William Niskanen. Niskanen first presented the idea in[1] and later developed it into a book published in The bureau-shaping model has been developed as a response to the budget-maximizing model.

Niskanen's inspiration could also have been Parkinson's law sixteen years earlier The model contemplates a bureaucrat who heads a public administration department, and who will try to maximize the department's budget, thus increasing its salary and prestige. There is a demand for the department's services on the part of electors and voters, but, contrary to publicly managed firms, which directly offer their products and services to these electors, the department is responsible for producing the services which will then be supplied by the Legislature to the electors.

It will therefore be the legislature, or Government, the agent which defines the department's budget, depending on the quantity which it supplies. The more services the department supplies, the higher will its budget be. Therefore, the bureaucrat's objective will be to maximize the quantity of services supplied, subject to a social welfare break-even constraint. This means that the dead weight loss generated by excessive production of services must never be higher than the elector's consumer surplus otherwise, the Legislature would notice that something was wrong with the department's activity, which would be causing social losses and not gains.

In other words, a typical, private-sector utility maximizing model would anticipate that the department would expand services and budgets to the point that the marginal cost and marginal benefits are equated. In Niskanen's model, he would predict that average costs and benefits would be equated instead of the marginals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Niskanen's budget maximizing bureaucrat [ edit ] The model contemplates a bureaucrat who heads a public administration department, and who will try to maximize the department's budget, thus increasing its salary and prestige.

May The American Economic Review. Niskanen, [] Bureaucracy and Public EconomicsElgar. Expanded ed. Description and review links Archived at the Wayback Machine and review excerpts. Categories : Government budgets Public choice theory Rational choice theory Government stubs Political science stubs. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links All stub articles. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

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maximizing model of bureaucracy

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Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this itemBureaucracy as a political theory is mainly a centralized form of management and tends to be differentiated from adhocracyin which management is decentralized.

maximizing model of bureaucracy

Various commentators have noted the necessity of bureaucracies in modern society. The German sociologist Max Weber argued that bureaucracy constitutes the most efficient and rational way in which human activity can be organized and that systematic processes and organized hierarchies are necessary to maintain order, maximize efficiencyand eliminate favoritism. On the other hand, Weber also saw unfettered bureaucracy as a threat to individual freedomwith the potential of trapping individuals in an impersonal " iron cage " of rule-based, rational control.

Modern bureaucracy has been defined as comprising four features: hierarchy clearly defined spheres of competence and divisions of laborcontinuity a structure where administrators have a full-time salary and advance within the structureimpersonality prescribed rules and operating rules rather than arbitrary actionsand expertise officials are chosen according to merit, have been trained, and hold access to knowledge.

The late M. The first known English-language use dates to [13] with Irish novelist Lady Morgan referring to the apparatus used by the British to subjugate their Irish colony as "the Bureaucratie, or office tyranny, by which Ireland has so long been governed.

In this context "bureaucracy" was seen as a distinct form of managementoften subservient to a monarchy. Although the term "bureaucracy" first originated in the midth century, organized and consistent administrative systems existed much earlier.

The development of writing c. A hierarchy of regional proconsuls and their deputies administered the Roman Empire. In Chinawhen the Qin dynasty — BC unified China under the Legalist system, the emperor assigned administration to dedicated officials rather than nobility, ending feudalism in China, replacing it with a centralized, bureaucratic government. The form of government created by the first emperor and his advisors was used by later dynasties to structure their own government.

Bureaucracy

The Han dynasty BC - AD established a complicated bureaucracy based on the teachings of Confuciuswho emphasized the importance of ritual in a family, in relationships, and in politics. In BC, Emperor Wen introduced the first method of recruitment to civil service through examinations, while Emperor Wu r. Yet recruitment by recommendations to office was still prominent in both dynasties.

It was not until the Song dynasty — that the recruitment of those who passed the exams and earned degrees was given greater emphasis and significantly expanded. Following the Song reforms, competitive examinations took place to determine which candidates qualified to hold given positions. Instead of the inefficient and often corrupt system of tax farming that prevailed in absolutist states such as France, the Exchequer was able to exert control over the entire system of tax revenue and government expenditure.

In the British civil service, just as it was in China, entrance to the civil service was usually based on a general education in ancient classics, which similarly gave bureaucrats greater prestige.

The Cambridge-Oxford ideal of the civil service was identical to the Confucian ideal of a general education in world affairs through humanism.

maximizing model of bureaucracy

Like the British, the development of French bureaucracy was influenced by the Chinese system. The dissatisfied noblemen complained about this "unnatural" state of affairs, and discovered similarities between absolute monarchy and bureaucratic despotism. Napoleonic France adopted this meritocracy system [49] and soon saw a rapid and dramatic expansion of government, accompanied by the rise of the French civil service and its complex systems of bureaucracy.

This phenomenon became known as "bureaumania". In the early 19th century, Napoleon attempted to reform the bureaucracies of France and other territories under his control by the imposition of the standardized Napoleonic Code.

But paradoxically, that led to even further growth of the bureaucracy.


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